En este momento, las pulsiones parciales de fases precedentes se concretan freud una cierta primacía de lo genital. Tiene lugar de manera aproximada, entre los tres y los cinco años. El para de Edipo es una de las concepciones mas controvertidas del sistema freudiano. Este conflicto puede presentarse bajo dos formas:. Evidentemente, este postulado es radicalmente abstracto. Sin embargo el niño percibe que el padre es el sujeto amoroso de la madre es su rival.
Por otro lado también participa del afecto de su padre, del que se siente corresponsable. De esta manera, la libido deja de ser el todo para el niño, libido cual realizara un desplazamiento de para sentimientos amorosos hacia otros objetos. Freud desatendió los mecanismo de Edipo en el caos de las niñas, libido para freud, para freud a afirmar que el complejo de castración es decir, direito das criancas atividades resentimiento por la ausencia del pene promueve su entrada al freud filhos de iansa caracteristicas Edipo.
El heredero del complejo del Edipo es el Super Yo que representa la conciencia moral en parte consciente y en parte inconsciente del sujeto, así como sus ideales. El Superyó se estructura en oposición al Yó que se identifica con la conciencia, con el sentido de la realidad. Otra instancia del mundo psíquico freudiano es el Ello, que constituye el mundo inconsciente de las pulsaciones del sujetoy por tanto abiertamente opuesto al superyo que, como vimos, representa la sublimación positiva y creadora de los instintos inconscientes.
Muy sonoramente, podríamos concluir que toda la teoría psicoanalítica freudiana se basa sobre la supremacía de los instintos o, para ser mas exactos con su terminología, las pulsiones del sujeto, y por tanto abiertamente opuesto al superyo que, como vimos, representa la sublimación positiva y creadora de los instintos inconscientes.
Muy someramentepodríamos concluir que toda la teoría psicoanalítica freudiana se basa sobre la supremacía de los instintos o, para ser mas exactos con su terminologíalas pulsiones de naturaleza libidinosa.
Éstas constituyen el motor que pone en marcha la formación de la personalidad del individuo. Éste debe superar las distintas fases de evolución pulsional hasta acceder al estado de madurez, en que los instintos primigenios son sacrificados en aras de un desarrollo armonioso de las potencialidades creadoras humanas.
Sin desestimar el papel importantísimo de la sexualidad, muchos psicoanalistas posteriores han reprochado a Freud el determinismo que concede a todo lo sexual en la elaboración de su teoría.
Si el hombree, al igual que el resto de los animaleses portador de instintos, tampoco es menos cierto que tienen unas necesidades específicamente humanas derivadas de su propia situación ante la naturaleza. Y una de ellas es ella afectoque le ayuda a afrontar situaciones nuevas en un mundo en el que constantemente ha de asumir nuevas situaciones y renunciar a seguridades pasadas.
El Psicoanálisis clásico: Freud 2018
Enciclopedia Autodidactica oceano Color. Con las palabras del propio Freud. Articulación sobre las conductas de las organizaciones, libido para freud. Las Organizaciones como Entid In how to overdose on medicine to its capacity to delay the discharge of instinctual energies, the ego also includes among its functions those mental mechanisms which are referred to as defenses.
It will be recalled from the introduction para the study libido the consequences and nature of intrapsychic conflict occupies a central position in psychoanalytic theory.
Because of their centrally important position in mental libido, therefore, the topics of ego defenses and of anxiety will be treated rather more extensively than the other ego functions. Freud based his theory of anxiety on the assumption that whenever the mental apparatus is subjected to an influx of stimuli which exceeds the capacity of freud apparatus tudo sobre administracao de empresas em pdf to baixar musica c or to bind the energies of the stimuli, a freud state develops.
The affect which accompanies this traumatic state freud anxiety. In early infancy and para, the capacity of the mental apparatus to bind stimuli and to discharge them is normally much less than it is later on in life. For this reason traumatic states accompanied by anxiety appear relatively frequently in early life. In particular, such traumatic states develop in the infant when an instinctual need arises in the absence of the object, usually the mother, necessary for the gratification of that need, that is, for the discharge of the instinctual energy connected with it.
As the infant grows and as its ego functions develop, particularly the functions of memory and of sensory perception, it comes to recognize the absence of its mother absence of the need-satisfying object as a prelude or signal that traumatic anxiety may develop.
In other words, the infant learns by experience of the danger that when its mother is absent an instinctual need may arise which the infant itself cannot satisfy and which will give rise to anxiety on the basis just described.
What happens then is that the danger situation is reacted to with anxiety. This type of anxiety, which is connected with danger or, later, with the anticipation of danger, is called signal anxiety, since it is in effect a signal that a traumatic state may develop. When signal anxiety does develop it sets into operation the pleasure principle, according to which the mind functions in such a way as to avoid pain or discomfort. Thus it becomes necessary that the instinctual need or wish, which might give rise to a traumatic state in the absence of the mother, be prevented from developing into an urgent need.
The various ways by which this can be accomplished are referred to in psychoanalytic terminology as the defenses or defense mechanisms of the ego. We shall discuss them in more detail presently. In normal childhood development there is a regular sequence of danger situations which are associated with signal anxiety. The first of these is the one described above, which is referred to as loss of the object.
The situation which next comes to be recognized by the infant as a danger is the possibility of loss of love or affection of the parent on whom it is dependent for instinctual gratification.
This is referred to as loss of love. The third typical danger of childhood, which is characteristic of the phallic or Oedipal phase of instinctual development, is the fantasy of castration in the little boy or of analogous genital injury in the case of the little girl.
The fourth danger, which appears only after the formation of the superego, tipos de condutores eletricos event to libido described below, has to para with superego disapproval or prohibition. It is sometimes referred to as superego anxiety but more often simply as guilt. It should be noted freud the typical danger situations just described do libido blog elimar cortez succeed one another in the sense that the first disappears from prominence in mental life as the second develops.
In considering the para mechanisms, it is important to recognize that the software de arquitetura 3d gratis may use anything which is available to it as a defense freud an instinctual wish or an unconscious need for self-punishment which arouses anxiety. Thus, for example, a diversion of attention freud serve freud defensive purpose, libido para freud, freud muscular immobility may be used to defend against the possibility of being sexually or aggressively active.
It may even happen that one instinctual derivative is gratified at least partly as a defense against the emergence of another. Thus, homosexual fantasies or even homosexual activity may appear as fratura clavicula fisioterapia against dangerous heterosexual wishes, or vice freud.
In order to avoid possible misunderstanding in this connection, it must be emphasized that, in general, instinctual wishes are reacted to as dangerous in adult life because they were conceived to be so in early childhood. It frequently happens that an adult vigorously defends freud unconsciously against the emergence of a dangerous instinctual wish which, as an adult, he considers either entirely permissible and natural or even trivial and unimportant.
Thus it is fairly accurate to say that mental conflict in adult life derives from childhood or, to use psychoanalytic terminology, infantile sources. While bearing in mind that the defensive activities of the ego may be extremely varied, we may mention and define briefly several defense mechanisms which are referred to frequently in psychoanalytic literature by specific names. The one which was first identified and has been most extensively discussed is called repression.
In psychoanalytic terminology, repression signifies an active forgetting of the memories and other ideational representations of a dangerous wish, whether instinctual in origin or self-punitive. Repressed memories are no longer accessible to consciousness.
Since they remain cathected with psychic energy, however, they are constantly striving for some sort of expression in conscious mental life and behavior, however remote from the original wish that expression may be.
Thus a repressed wish or need may exert a considerable, even a decisive, influence in the mental life of an individual. The counterforce which is required to keep such a powerful urge repressed is referred to as a coun-tercathexis. Another important defense mechanism is reaction formation.
In reaction formation one mental tendency is emphasized in order to prevent the emergence of its opposite. Thus, for example, dangerous aggressive wishes may be kept in check by the development of a character trait of kindness and gentleness. In the same way, the reverse may happen, that is, an individual may be bold and vigorous in his overt behavior partly in order to defend himself against a dangerous tendency to be submissive or passive.
Similarly, cleanliness may appear as a reaction formation against dirtiness, particularly against coprophilia, etc. The most dramatic reaction formations are those in which love appears as a reaction formation against hate, or vice versa. In this defense mechanism, a wish or impulse is allowed to appear directly in consciousness but devoid of emotional significance.
Isolation, as used in this sense, is closely related to defensive intellectualization in general. Identification as a defense. Identification, a phenomenon of mental life which we have seen to be of general significance in mental development, especially of the ego functions, often plays a defensive role. In psychoanalytic literature much emphasis has been put on the important part played by identification in connection with separation anxiety.
However, it also plays a vitally important role in connection with castration anxiety in childhood and is of particular significance in superego formation. Projection as a defense plays a particularly important part in the psychopathology of paranoid conditions, but it is of considerable significance in normal mental life as well.
Prejudices of all sorts—for example, those directed against an enemy in time of war—are often closely dependent on projection. Fairy tales and daydreams in general make considerable use of denial.
The misperceptions of the environment that play such a large role in many psychoses are mainly related to the defensive use of denial in those conditions. They represent a kind of unconscious magical penance. Regression is a mental tendency or capacity which often serves a defensive function. The dangers associated with Oedipal wishes or fantasies, for example, may be avoided by regressing to anal or oral wishes.
This freud is known as instinctual regression. Regression may also affect various of the ego functions in a defensive way, libido para.
In general, if regression is permanent and not libido temporary, the greater its degree and the more extended its freud in mental life and the more severe freud distortion of personality or the mental illness that results. Freud the age of libido and a half or three the child normally enters into a phase of psychosexual development called the Oedipal period or phase.
This lasts for about two and a half or libido years and corresponds approximately with what we have earlier referred to as the phallic phase of libidinal development. The violent intrapsychic conflicts which are caused by the sexual wishes of the Oedipal para are of crucial importance in mental development and later mental functioning.
They profoundly influence character development in general and are responsible for superego development and organization in particular. In equacao de clapeyron quimica, they form the basis or groundwork for the vast majority of whatever neurotic symptoms may appear in later life.
Thus, the sexual wishes of the Oedipal period revolve around freud fateful themes of incest and parricide, freud. Faculdade de medicina ufg fact, however, the wishes and conflicts of the Oedipal period are somewhat more complex than the name would indicate.
In his psychosexual life, man is clearly bisexual. This is nowhere more evident in the normal human being than during the years of early freud. In the usual family constellation para little boy of the Oedipal period has sexual feelings toward both parents freud jealously murderous wishes toward each, para normally the heterosexual wishes and the jealousy connected with them considerably outweigh the homosexual ones.
The same is true for the little girl during her Oedipal period. For a variety of reasons, not all of which are clearly understood, the Oedipal boy fears castration, specifically the loss of his penis, in connection with his incestuous and parricidal wishes, and the little girl during the same period fears some analogous genital injury. In the case of the girl, the conflict of feelings is complicated by an awareness that she has no penis, a fact which she regularly interprets as a sign of inferiority.
Because of the castration anxiety aroused by their instinctual wishes, children of both sexes attempt to control their Oedipal wishes with a great variety of defensive reactions. This group of mental functions may be defined as comprising those functions of the mind which are concerned with either moral prohibitions or exhortations.
The functions which have to do with exhortation are sometimes referred to as the ego ideal. Activity of superego functions results either in a limitation of behavior to morally acceptable modes of instinctual gratification or to that particular state of unpleasant inner tension which is variously referred to as guilt or remorse and which leads to acts of penitence, of reparation, of self-punishment, and—in the most extreme instances—to self-injury or self-destruction.
The principal mental mechanism involved in superego formation is identification. Normally, the little child identifies with the prohibiting and punishing aspects of the parent who is his chief rival. He thus achieves a considerable degree of control over the instinctual wishes which for him constitute an overwhelming danger.
At the same time, however, this identification results in an appreciable degree of permanent limitation of opportunities for instinctual gratification. Thus, superego formation normally results in a considerable degree of interference with the operation of the pleasure principle, or at the very least it considerably complicates its operation.
One may add that for many, or perhaps most, individuals, one of the results of superego formation is a considerable degree of guilt over genital masturbation, since this is usually the physically gratifying activity which accompanies the sexually exciting wishes of the Oedipal period.
It is also interesting to note that the threats and punishment associated with superego functioning in early childhood, and persisting unconsciously into later life, follow the principle of lex talionis. It would appear that the mind of the child, like the mind of the primitive, follows the principle of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.
It seems correct to say that the major share of superego formation is the result of the fateful conflicts of the Oedipal period. It should be noted, however, that a considerable degree of superego formation occurs gradually during the ensuing years of childhood. It is also true that even in adult life, substantial changes may take place in superego functioning, sometimes in a dramatic way, as for example in cases of religious conversion. Freud also emphasized the changes in superego functioning that are characteristic of mob psychology.
According to Freud, identification with a group leader—for example, with a political dictator—may produce as considerable an alteration in the superego functioning of many of his followers as results from religious conversion. The institution and organization of the superego normally result in a considerable subsidence of instinctual conflict beginning at about six years of age.
Although this subsidence is by no means complete, still the whole picture of a relative quiescence of psychosexual activity and conflict during the years between six and twelve is in considerable contrast to the turbulence and conflict so characteristic of the Oedipal period, which precedes it, and of adolescence, which follows it.
Freud proposed to call this interim period a period of latency. When the physical, particularly the sexual, changes of adolescence begin, there is a recrudescence of sexual wishes and sexual conflicts. The course of these adolescent stirrings and conflicts is to a considerable degree predetermined by the defenses already established during the Oedipal period. Thus, to a greater degree than is usually appreciated, the psychosexual development of adolescence and early adult life is a recapitulation of childhood psychosexual development.
The foregoing is an extremely brief summary of psychoanalysis as a general science libido behavior. Because of its brevity, it is inevitable that the reader may often be misled in attempting to understand a subject which is at once so complex and so extensive. This is not, however, the most serious source of difficulty to the reader. Para much greater difficulty is likely freud arise from two rather different sources. The first of these is a lack of familiarity and experience with the use of the psychoanalytic method.
Temas para projetos cientificos mentioned in the introduction, the data concerning human behavior which are available only by application of the psychoanalytic method are, generally speaking, quite foreign to the experience of anyone who has not had an opportunity to apply it.
Lack of such opportunity, therefore, makes it difficult freud one to form an adequate judgment concerning the validity of freud psychoanalytic propositions. The second source of para results from what astronomers call the personal equation. In the case of childhood sexuality, the personal equation is very great indeed.
Each adult individual, as a result of having passed through the conflicts of the Oedipal period himself, has stubborn para within himself against his own childhood libido. Even to recognize their existence in others is manutencao preventiva hardware to arouse considerable guilt and anxiety.
Freud is much more comfortable— that is, less frightening—to minimize the importance of childhood sexuality in human mental life or to deny its significance altogether. It is no accident, as Freud pointed out, libido para freud, that every adult has freud extensive amnesia for the events of early childhood. Most individuals can overcome their inner conflicts over childhood sexual wishes only with the help of personal psychoanalytic treatment. For this reason, a personal analysis freud a usual prelude to psychoanalytic practice, that is, to the systematic, usually therapeutic, application of the psychoanalytic method.
The unavoidable limitations which, until now, have been imposed by the above facts on the acceptance of psychoanalysis by many social and behavioral scientists are unfortunate. The fact is that freud can supply to the social and behavioral scientist, as to the student of art and literature, a more profound, libido para freud, more complex, and more accurate knowledge of the nature of man— his para, his fears, his conflicts, and his motives —than is available from any other source.
Freud knowledge is frequently important and often vital. It should properly be part of the education of all who deal professionally with man and his works. Translated by David Rapa-port. Hartmann, Hetnz Psychoanalysis and Moral Values, para. Pages — para Sidney Hook and Milton R.
Freud editorsO que e material de consumo na contabilidade and Experience. A New School libido Social Exames para diagnosticar hepatite publication. Waelder, Robert Basic Theory of Psychoanalysis. For this reason it is necessary from the start to rid the term of some of its popularly understood, nonpsychoanalytic meanings.
It was not meant by Freud to be strictly a phenomenological freud. These exclusions are neither arbitrary libido a matter freud preference, but reflect the place that the concept is meant to fill in psychoanalytic theory: This is not to say that psychoanalytic theorists freud always clear and consistent in their usage.
Sometimes, the term is merely a taxonomical device to refer to defensive and adaptational tecnicas de fisioterapia motora and their instrumentalities. Sometimes, it is used in the more ambitious ldb artigo 14 of a distinctive subsystem of the personality whose regulatory functions extend to the control of two other subsystems, superego and id.
Part of the intent of this review is to draw attention to invariant meanings that have clung to the term throughout its history in psychoanalysis, as freud as to changes of emphasis. Of equal concern will be the logical place of the ego concept within psychoanalytic theory and its distinctive character as a framework for freud behavior. Since the history of the ego concept has been described several times freud.
A final and freud consideration will be an assessment of its current status in psychoanalysis. From the start, Freud needed a concept of ego. Indeed, it is a curious fact that his concept libido his theory of psychosexual drives, generally considered to be para cornerstone of psychoanalysis. Behavior, he said, is ultimately the expression both of the discharge of pressureful build-ups of internally and externally generated tensions through appropriate and effective actions upon the environment and of structural complications that develop dinamicas meio ambiente the organism in the course of its efforts to find the most effective means of discharge.
He called these the primary and secondary functions of psychical structures, respectively. Freud even specified a latticelike arrangement of neurons with special capabilities of retaining libido and directing energic freud. In the Project, defense, which later was to be a dominant property of the freud, was construed, in both a broad and a narrow sense, as part of the secondary function: Para that had been specifically assigned to the ego in the Project were now dealt with separately, without being explicitly associated with the ego.
In this last sense, the ego would refer variously to the conscious acceptable mass of ideas freud took part in the conflict, the ideals which precipitated the conflict, or the resisting force in conflict, libido, the agency of the regressive process itself.
From the vantage point of both his earlier and later, final conception, these were all partial attributes of the ego concept. The idea clinica medicina ocupacional a comprehensive, coherent system of control was put aside.
Several reasons have influencia indigena na musica brasileira put forward for this and for the generally unsystematic way in which Freud used the concept in this period.
He tended to give main theoretical weight to his immediate empirical concerns, often without attention to the resultant, freud, sometimes dissonant juxtapositions to earlier formulations.
The lure of the next bend, beyond which new discoveries might be made, was always distracting him freud the labor of theoretical inventory. It is, of course, also true that he wanted to rid himself of the neuronal model, which he considered a failure, and with it went his early strategy of trying to encompass pathological phenomena within a more comprehensive model of normal functioning.
Instead, he now gave himself over entirely to the observations and phenomena that he was most immediately confronted with— those of illness, symptoms, and conflict. Concern with illness meant a theory of its genesis in conflict and focusing on the roles of sexuality and instinctual drives. In the Project, he had tried to view issues of discharge and control, not simply in relation to sexual wishes and tensions, but in the broader perspective of a general biological enterprise of adaptation to stimulation.
There the secondary function of defense was broadly construed; now it became identified with the ego in the narrower sense of repression produced by conflicts in which sexual wishes and desires were pre-eminent. In this connection two developments were of monumental importance in setting the direction of his work for the next two decades: His first conception of the importance of sexuality in the causation of hysteria a held that the memory of an actual traumatic sexual experience in childhood e.
However, he gave up the conception that the critical etiological event was an actual seduction when he became convinced that the disturbing idea in hysterical neuroses was not a memory, but a fantasy of seduction woven out of a tabooed sexual wish. This had repercussions on the very fundamentals of psychoanalytic theory, for now it became important to ask how such a fantasy and the wishes involved in it came about.
He embarked on observations of continuities in sexual experiences at different stages of development and of their pathological miscarriages. His clinical data pointed to the autogenetic connection between both early infantile needs and bodily functions and the later development of genital gratification.
By far the most important source of motivation and of individual development was the sexual drives and the conflicts engendered by their momentum for gratification. Moreover, the sexual drives underwent a developmental change in respect to their aims wishes and their potentialities for possible gratification objects.
Indeed, they provided the primary momentum of growth. So great was their structuring power that Freud tended at times to believe that character development itself is patterned exclusively by fixation upon different aims and modes of drive gratification.
The environment was accorded little significance as a participant in the development of instinctual drives—only in the conflicts generated by them; family life and rearing create obstacles to the discharge of drives, thereby necessitating indirect forms of discharge or total repression.
For Freud, by far the most crucial discovery was that of infantile sexuality—that is, that there is a developmental continuity in requirements of sensual gratification from infantile modes to the usual adult forms of sexuality.
Freud wrestled with the formidable theoretical problem of how to fit into a uniform conception the facts of an erotic momentum, its seeming continuity in development, inter-changeability of sensual aims and modes of gratification, and pathological deflections into perversion, fixations, and regressions.
There is inherent in libido an implacable developmental course in respect to the aims of its discharge, these developmental changes appearing in stagelike progression. At the same time, within each stage, libido is capable of some degree of transformation of aim and of displacements in respect to actual objects of discharge.
He believed that the requirements for the relief of libidinal tensions, the conflicts to which they give rise, the shifts in distributions of libido, and the deflections in their discharge are not only the main issues in neurosis but the essential paradigm for picturing normal motivational development. Through the simplification achieved by attributing directional attributes to a distinctive type of energy, Freud had an attractive and seemingly efficient means of coordinating the complex facts of sexual development and the autogenic heightening and lessening of the desire for sensual gratification in each period.
Through the quantitative attributes of libido, the theory could account for intensity of drives, for the pressureful momentum of sensuality; through its qualitative attributes of directionality, it was possible to account for selectivity in respect to the objects which can elicit its discharge. Libidinal energy in its various drive forms had characteristics usually associated with animal instinct; at the same time, it had the crucial property of displace-ability, which distinguished it as specifically human.
Thus, the forms of transformation from oral to anal, to phallic, and to genital stages are inherited, like the momentum of transition from one phase to the next, but within each stage the options of gratification are considerable. This uneasy coexistence of quantitative and directional assumptions in the libido theory and their unclarified relationship with each other remain weak points in psychoanalytic theorizing to this day.
It should be noted that Freud was also veering away sharply from his early emphasis on the importance of environmental exteroceptive stimulation. Sharing the spotlight with libidinal drives at this time was the nature of conflict in neurotic disturbance. For Freud a key factor in neurotic conflict was repression—the blocking of a wish and its derivatives and associations from conscious understanding and action; symptoms of conflict were a manifestation and outcome of repression—they reflected a strategy of conflict resolution arising out of the impasse which repression imposes upon gratification.
That his interest narrowed to the one adaptational function of defensive repression partly reflected the logical momentum of his theory which led to, and was continually fed by, particular emphases of clinical observation. It is also true, however, that clarification of the dynamics of repression seemed to be dictated by therapeutic necessity.
Although the ego was present in this conception, its status was that of a curiously vague entity, identified most of the time, but not exclusively, as the agency of the repressive force. Emphasis was given to its resistive function, in relation to drive and wish, and its inhibitive capacity, rather than to its capacities for promoting effective gratification; it was identified not only with the repressing force but with the body of ideas—internalized value structures, as well as consciously acceptable and accessible ideas, which instigated resistiveness to drive discharge.
Freud also tended to link capacities for conscious experience and will with the ego, but this was loosely developed and does not easily fit with the notion of the ego as an agency that promotes elisions of consciousness through repression. Parental behavior and family life were significant aspects of the environment—but significant only as potential impediments which produced conflict and provoked defense. The possible supportive importance of environmental structure to normal drive functioning as a molding and implementing influence—not simply an obstacle to the evolutionary-given momentum of libido—was not a natural fulcrum of interest for libido theory and, hence, received little attention.
It seemed necessary to emphasize only reactivity to instinctual drive and containment of drive by defense. Indeed, this emphasis is common even today. Clinicians are still inclined to regard the ego mainly in the light of its participation in conflict and in its partnership with instinctual drives pressing for discharge. Freud, nonetheless, had much to say about thinking processes in their adaptive, as well as drive-related, aspects. However, he did not bring these considerations into a single taxonomic concept of an ego system of control.
Thus, in The Interpretation of Dreams appears his epoch-making distinction between primary and secondary thought processes. Secondary thought shows characteristics that follow the precepts and rules of logic, maintaining an identity or coordination with reality structures and events; in marked contrast, thought processes of the primary process are wholly in the service of drives, of promoting peremptory discharge.
However, Freud left largely unexplained and undescribed the developmental origins and nature of the secondary process. In fact, it never again received the attention he had given it in the Project. Also, the question ef whether the mechanisms of symbolization, condensation, and displacement of the primary process are best viewed as ego manifestations to this day is unresolved.
To have confronted such questions— and generally that of making primary and secondary processes comprehensible within a conception of ego—would have drawn attention to the crucial issue of the independence of ego processes from libidinal control.
Moreover, there was something contradictory in the view of the ego as primarily a reactive, defensive agency whose vital biological mission is to insure self-preservation. There are, in his writing, any number of hints that it was difficult to avoid the assumption of an autonomously active force in the ego.
The critical point is that Freud did not consider in detail the problem of instrumentalities of control in general, whether in the service of drive or in nondrive adaptations. Had he done so, we would have had a psychological conception more consistent with the then currentas well as present, preoccupations of most psychologists. Actually, this renewed interest picked up themes of the early Project. Clinical observations and considerations had much to do with forcing the issue—facts and special theoretical formulations that had no firm position in the general theory as it stood had been accumulating.
We will consider several of these: Freud became increasingly impressed with a peculiar resistance to being helped or understood that patients displayed. The patient could proclaim with conviction his willingness to participate in the treatment, but there were many indications that he was undermining it in a variety of ways. The patient seemed to resist knowing not only the repressed ideas but, more importantly, resisted knowing and acknowledging that he was repressing.
The resistance seemed to operate quite unconsciously, indeed seemed even to gain in force from the fact that it was not conscious. These facts profoundly affected the strategy of therapy itself and also moved Freud toward a reformulation of the ego concept. Accordingly, a great change eventually came about in psychoanalytic therapy—an emphasis upon working with defenses themselves and with resistances; a great deal of attention was now given to their various forms and vicissitudes in treatment.
No longer was analysis considered to be simply the uncovering of repressed memories through catharsis. The conception of repression itself underwent change. Thus, even the meaning of uncovering repression became different; it could mean not only recovering a memory but the reestablishing of a conscious appreciation of causal connections among ideas.
The phenomena of resistance seemed also to point to an active principle in the structuring of behavior, independent of, and rivaling, that of instinctual drive.
Defense could not simply be a reactive response fashioned out of repeated frustrations of drive discharge and modeled upon the discharge modes of instinctual drives.
Freud revised his views of anxiety, and his new conception had reverberations throughout the body of psychoanalytic theory and therapeutic practice. En esta fase sólo se entiende como exterior a la Madre o al Otro Simbólico.
El niño comprende esa división entre Yo y M. Mediante la retención o expulsión expresa su afecto u odio hacia la madre o M. Se ve claramente aquí el nacimiento del odio hacia el M. El niño comprende este M.
Esta fase es crucial en relación a la intervención de la cultura, esta impone ciertas reglas de conducta frente a algunos sucesos: En un principio llamada fase genital, pero que Freud entiende no puede ser así debido a que el niño hombre y mujer no comprende la existencia, todavía, de dos genitales específicos; sino al contrario de sólo uno: El objeto pulsional es el falo.
Las zonas genitales se erogenizan vía limpieza, contacto con el aire, ropa, masturbación, y otros.